V. A. Lipkan: Methodological relativism and main issue of philosophy


Lipkan Volodymyr



No doubt, when we mark out substantial shortcomings in this field we have to focus our attention first of all at issues of higher order. Numerous attempts of terrorism phenomena researchers and those authors who joined them on conjuncture interests are to answer eternal question concerning reasons of its appearance and until now gave no results. So, till 9/11 events in foreign literature there is a lot of researches related to history of terrorism appearance focusing its attention in general on Russian organization “Zemlya I volya” as one of the first terrorist organizations. There is no problem with criminological data on terrorism which we can find both in foreign and in state database and researches. However, we still can’t say about real results and find way out, which help us not just realize but construct an effective antiterrorist system, provide national interest and keep secure freedom, democracy and civil rights — our sense of being. And existing problem is not only found due to theoretical researches. On my opinion, terrorism is researched using not proper methodology and research of these processes in the world is carried out on methodologically relative level [1].

In general we are speaking about an issue of philosophy. What is prior: spirit or matter? Will the answer on this question allow us to find out reasons and consequences of any social-abnormal activity or will it answer a question concerning perspectives and circumstances of globalization in the world? I doubt whether. That is why we can talk and think about abstract categories while it does not have to be so transcendent that accentualisation became a problem impossible to solve. On opinion of “Dead water” conception authors the main problems of generally useful philosophy are methodology and development of culture and consequences of human behavior that becomes predictable based on it. If the other main problem in world view is stated and is popularized in society as the key problem in relation to sense of living than all this garbage hinders to predict consequences of governing decisions in society. Such kind of society is unable to define goals of own development by itself, to achieve own defined goals, make analysis of events that is extremely important for governing correction. As the result, it loses ability for self-government and became an instrument in others hands [2].


Terrorism in civilization governing: globalist approach

According to generally accepted conception governing is understood as process of deliberate and purposeful influence of a subject of governing to an object to gain posed task. In mentioned case we can identify globalization process on modern stage of humanity development with expansion of American ideology, in other words influence of American elite on world society to reform due to democracy, liberty and freedom. Any attempts to say about independence in politics of numerous states including France claiming for leadership and Germany trying to suppress American expansion along with France and many other economically developed countries but impotent toward the USA in political and military spheres are at least mistaken. The USA as subject of ruling is the guide of globalization idea — idea which help many nations to get freedom and independence, idea which open a new way and gives a new possibilities. In addition proof to realize an americin responsibilities in modern civilization governing is thesis by former U.S. State Secretary Madlene Olbright: “The terrorists should have no illusion: Old Glorry will continue to fly wherever we have interests to defend. We’ll meet our commitments. We’ll strive to protect our people. And we’ll wage the struggle against terror on every front, on every continent, with every tool, every day”[3]. And this thesis is very actual in contemporary time.

Defining object and subject of governing we can speak about principles of governing only through the prism of U.S. national interests: all processes in the world complying with national interests of the USA will be supported and the other will be anathematize blaming them to be undemocratic or terrorist regimes or in any other form not contradicting development of modern civilization. In general on my opinion we have to put out a question as to formulation of a new applied theory of globalistics: theory of civilization governing in conditions of globalization.

Having defined subject and object of governing, outlined functions, principles and aim of this process a necessity arises to define range of means with outstanding role of terrorism as an effective means for civilization governing. I would like to offer the following hierarchical system of influence means as one of the variants:

  1. Information of world view character that lies in establishment of bipolar human being world: we versus them. People who have the different point of view, whose hierarchical order of the world processes do not comply with generally recognized order are abandoned and their revolt having bloody forms is illegal. All of this changes basics of thinking culture and completeness of ruling activity because there is no protection of a human, there is only his further enslavement using slogans of necessity to fight terrorism. So then terrorism activity will stay more bloody, law enforcement activity stay more nondemocratic.
  2. Information of annalistic, chronological character that allows to pick out single processes apprehending “chaotic flow” of facts and events to world view sieve – personal measure of human perception.
  3. Information of descriptive and factual character including religious doctrines of destructive cults, different ideologies of terrorism.
  4. Economic processes as means of influence; it can be used to initiate or to neutralize terrorism. An effective measures  are FATF`s recommendations, which describes a way financing terrorism and adequate measures to stop it.
  5. Means of direct physical influence: nuclear threat, intervention of narcotics, tobacco and alcohol, food supplements and other environmental pollutants, transgene engineering and cloning.
  6. Means of the lowest level of suggestion – common weapon and other means with direct damage.

Of course, given hierarchical table of influence means is not ideal, however it allows us to define sharply most probable means when terrorism can be used as mechanism of governing. Surely, at the highest level there are conceptually unacceptable governing decisions that can influence using terrorism directly or indirectly. When this set is used inside one system then it is the common means of governing. When these means are used by a system against another one then this is common weapon or instrument of war. Terrorism as mean of civilization governing in context of permanent globalization processes can not be applied to countries which governing system do not contradict basic principles of total system of governing (model of the USA).

Globalizm terrorisation

Of course, I did not intend to disparage globalization idea in the world or to show its negative character for the world. I had another goal: to demonstrate how globalization assists expansion of terrorism and how modern civilization is governed using terrorism. Of course, I did not covered thoroughly all issues and some of them are disputable and polemic, however I am sure that any study of terrorism fighting has to be carry out through the prism of globalization. Globalization as a process of conceptual model of civilization governing has a lot of means. Unfortunately, terrorism is among them. That is why, except urgent necessity of antiterrorist legislation we have to work out new methodology to study terrorism as a complex nonlinear dynamical self-organizing system, wish develops according to society developing and needs to improve. New methodology and comprehension of terrorism ties with globalization will bring in pithiness to research paradigm that finally will be applied to elaborate specific practical proposals as to neutralization of terrorism as mean of civilization governing and also negative consequences of globalization. I am sure it is not an easy work but it is feasible.


[1] Lipkan V. A., Nikiforchuk D. I., Rudenko M.M. Fighting terrorism— Kyiv: Znannya, 2002. — P. 2.

[2] Political extremism in global historic process. — Moscow: Znanie-Vlast’, 1999. — P. 31.

[3] Utkin A.I. American strategy for the 21st century. — Moscow: Logos, 2000. — P. 19.